SEJARAH DAN PERKEMBANGAN KARATE


SEJARAH KARATE

Ilmu bela diri sebenarnya sudah dikenak semenjak manusia ada, hal ini dapat dilihat dari peninggalan-peninggalan purbakala antara lain: kapak-kapak batu, lukisan-lukisan binatang yang dibunuh dengan senjata seperti tombak dan panah.
Bela diri pada waktu itu hanya bersifat mempertahankan diri dari gangguan binatang buas dan alam sekitarnya. Namun sejak pertambahan penduduk dunia semakin meningkat, maka gangguan yang datang dari manusia mulai timbul sehingga keinginan orang untuk menekuni ilmu bela diri semakin meningkat.
Tersebutlah pada 4.000 tahun yang lalu, setelah Sidartha Gautama pendiri Budha wafat, maka para pengikutnya mendapat amanat agar mengembangkan agama Budha keseluruh dunia. Namun karena sulitnya medan yang dilalui, maka para pendeta diberikan bekal ilmu bela diri. Misi yang ke arah Barat ternyata mengembangkan ilmu Pangkration atau Wrestling di Yunani. Misi keagamaan yang berangkat ke arah Selatan mengembangkan semacam, pencak silat yang kita kenal sekarang ini. Salah satu misi yang ke Utara menjelajahi Cina menghasilkan kungfu (belakangan di abad XII, kungfu dibawa oleh pedagang Cina dan Kubilaikhan kenegara Majapahit di Jawa Timur).
Dari Cina rombongan yang ke Korea menghasilkan bela diri yang kemudian kita kenal dengan Taekwondo. Dari Korea ternyata rombongan tidak dsapat meneruskan perjalanan ke Jepang, tetapi berhenti hanya sampai di kepulauan Okinawa. Tidak berhasil masuknya rombongan ke Jepang, karena di Jepang saat itu sudah mengembangkan ilmu bela diri Jujitsu, yudo, kendo dan ilmu pedang (kenjutsu). Namun sejarah mencatat bahwa pasda tahun 1600-an, Kerajaan Jepang telah menguasai Okinawa. Kerajaan Jepang telah memerintah Okinawa dengan tangan besi, penduduk dilarang memiliki senjata tajam, bahkan orang tua dilarang memakai tongkat. Diam-diam bangsa yang terjajah ini mempelajari ilmu bela diri dengan tangan kosong yang waktu dikenal dengan nama TOTE. Dari satu teknik ke teknik lainnya, ilmu bela diri diperdalam dan para pendeta ikut mendorong berkembangnya ilmu bela diri TOTE ini.
Kemudian pada tahun 1921 seorang penduduk Okinawa bernama Funakoshi Gitchin memperkenalkan ilmu bela diri dari TOTE ini di Jepang, dan namanya pun berubah menjadi karatre, sesuai dengan aksen Jepang dalam cara membaca huruf kanji. Sejak saat itu karate berkembang dengan pesat di Jepang.

KARATE DI INDONESIA

Karate masuk di Indonesia bukan dibawa oleh tentara Jepang melainkan oleh Mahasiswa-mahasiswa Indonesia yang kembakli ke tanah air, setelah menyelesaikan pendidikannya di Jepang. Tahun 1963 beberapa Mahasiswa Indonesia antara lain: Baud AD Adikusumo, Muchtar dan Karyanto mendirikan Dojo di Jakarta. Mereka inilah yang mula-mula memperkenalkan karate (aliran Shoto-kan) di Indonesia, dan selanjutnya mereka membentuk wadah yang mereka namakan PORKI. Beberapa tahun kemudian berdatangan ex Mahasiswa Indonesia dari Jepang seperti Setyo Haryono (pendiri Gojukai), Anton Lesiangi, Sabeth Muchsin dan Chairul Taman yang turut mengembangkan karate di tanah air. Disamping ex Mahasiswa-mahasiswa tersebut di atas orang-orang Jepang yang datang ke Indonesia dalam rangka usaha telah pula ikut memberikan warna bagi perkembangan karate di Indonesia. Mereka-mereka ini antara lain: Matsusaki (Kushinryu-1966), Ishi (Gojuryu-1969), Hayashi (Shitoryu-1971) dan Oyama (Kyokushinkai-1967).
Karate ternyata memperoleh banyak penggemar, yang implementasinya terlihat muncul dari berbagai macam organisasi (Pengurus) karate, dengan berbagai aliran seperti yang dianut oleh masing-masing pendiri perguruan. Banyaknya perguruan karate dengan berbagai aliran menyebabkan terjadinya ketidak cocokan diantara para tokoh tersebut, sehingga menimbulkan perpecahan di dalam tubuh PORKI. Namun akhirnya dengan adanya kesepakatan dari para tokoh-tokoh karate untuk kembali bersatu dalam upaya mengembangkan karate di tanah air sehingga pada tahun 1972 terbentuklah satu wadah organisasi karate yang diberi nama FORKI (Federasi Olahraga Karate-Do Indonesia).
Adapun mereka yang pernah menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum dan Sekretaris Jenderal PB. FORKI sejak tahun 1972 sampai dengan saat ini adalah:

1972-1977: Ketua Umum: Widjojo Sujono, Sekretaris Jenderal: Otoman Nuh
1977-1980: Ketua Umum: Sumadi, Sekretaris Jenderal: Rustam Ibrahim
1980-1984: Ketua Umum: Subhan Djajaatmadja, Sekretaris Jenderal: G.A. Pesik
1984-1988: Ketua Umum: Rudini, Sekretaris Jenderal: Adam Saleh
1988-1992: Ketua Umum: Rudini, Sekretaris Jenderal: G.A. Pesik
1992-1996: Ketua Umum: Rudini, Sekretaris Jenderal: G.A. Pesik
1997-2001: Ketua Umum: Wiranto, Sekretaris Umum: Hendardji-S
2001-2005: Ketua Umum: Luhut B. Panjaitan, Sekretaris Umum: Hendardji-S

PERGURUAN KARATE ANGGOTA FORKI

1. AMURA
2. BKC (Bandung Karate Club)
3. BLACK PANTHER
4. FUNAKOSHI
5. GABDIKA SHITORYU (Gabungan Beladiri Karate-Do Shitoryu)
6. GOJUKAI
7. GOJU RYU ASS
8. GOKASI (Goju Ryu Karate-Do Shinbukan Seluruh Indonesia)
9. INKADO (Indonesia Karate-Do)
10. INKAI (Institut Karate-Do Indonesia)
11. KALA HITAM
12. KANDAGA PRANA
13. KEI SHIN KAN
14. KKNSI (Kesatuan Karate-Do Naga Sakti Indonesia)
15. KKI (Kushin Ryu Karate-Do Indonesia)
16. KYOKUSHINKAI (Kyokushinkai Karate-Do Indonesia)
17. LEMKARI (Lembaga Karate-Do Indonesia)
18. MKC (Medan Karate Club)
19. PERKAINDO
20. PORBIKAWA
21. PORDIBYA
22. SHINDOKA
23. SHI ROI TE
24. TAKO INDONESIA
25. WADOKAI (Wadoryu Karate-Do Indonesia)

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